The United States lost 2-1 to Trinidad and Tobago on Tuesday while both Honduras and Panama won their matches, which eliminated them from the 2018 World Cup in Russia.
Panama found a goal in the 87th minute to beat Costa Rica 2-1 to earn the final qualifying spot. Honduras advanced to the intercontinental playoff against Australia.
Christian Pulisic gave the United States their lone goal after they fell behind 2-0 before halftime.
The United States last failed to reach the World Cup in 1986.
With the World Cup likely coming to the United States in 2026, they would be guaranteed qualification for that edition of the tournament.