English Premier League clubs paid their players and other staff a record $3 billion USD in 2012-13, up 11% on the previous year, according to the Guardian's review of all the clubs' annual accounts.

The clubs made a record $4.56 billion combined income, yet nevertheless made a loss overall, of $491 million.

Twelve of the 20 clubs made a loss in 2012-13, with five clubs losing $84 million or more: Aston Villa, Chelsea, Liverpool, Manchester City and Queens Park Rangers.

The proportion of the income clubs spent on wages in 2012-13 was the same as in 2011-12, 67%, above the 50-60% threshold commonly recommended as sensible.

Clubs do not differentiate in their accounts between wages paid to players and to other staff, but the overwhelming majority go to players.